Often times, writers will blend their
sources’ claims and ideas into their own more fluidly by using summaries
and paraphrases, rather than direct quotations. However, regardless of
how you are presenting someone else’s claims and points, you still must
always include a citation. Summaries typically focus on the main idea of
a text, while a paraphrase is usually a more in-depth restatement in
your own words of particular points or ideas from a text. Often times,
writers will blend summaries, paraphrasing, and direct quotes together
in their writing. Citations should appear as close to the paraphrased
idea as possible. If you are unsure about whether to use a citation
after an idea that you think you might have paraphrased, remember it is
always safer to over cite than under cite.
Fig. 2. This excerpt from a
scholarly work demonstrates an instance when citing a lot of sources is
appropriate and necessary to establish a claim. Also note, the author
cites himself twice! (Pennycook 579-580).