Often times, writers will blend their sources’ claims and ideas into their own more fluidly by using summaries and paraphrases, rather than direct quotations. However, regardless of how you are presenting someone else’s claims and points, you still must always include a citation. Summaries typically focus on the main idea of a text, while a paraphrase is usually a more in-depth restatement in your own words of particular points or ideas from a text. Often times, writers will blend summaries, paraphrasing, and direct quotes together in their writing. Citations should appear as close to the paraphrased idea as possible. If you are unsure about whether to use a citation after an idea that you think you might have paraphrased, remember it is always safer to over cite than under cite.


Fig. 2. This excerpt from a scholarly work demonstrates an instance when citing a lot of sources is appropriate and necessary to establish a claim. Also note, the author cites himself twice! (Pennycook 579-580).